Program To Implement Stacks Using Structures In C C Programming
Similarly, some people like to use the class keyword for classes with member functions and private data, because it says "class" on it and therefore looks like examples from their favourite book on object-oriented programming.
Program to Implement Stacks using structures in C C Programming
Distinguishing between structs and classes is just too much hassle getting into the way of doing what we should be doing - programming. Like so many of C++'s problems it arises out of the strong desire for backwards compatibility.
I have never had a case where private inheritance was the right thing to do. Yes I tried to invent problems to use private inheritance but it didn't work. And Java, the role model of Object Oriented programming defaults to public inheritance if you don't use the accessor keywords. And by the way, Java doesn't allow accessor keywords on inherited classes, they can only be publicly inherited. So you can see, the cpp team really fell down here.
A data structure is a collection of data values, the relationships among them, and the functions or operations that can be applied to the data. Some sort of data structure is used in almost every program. Also, it is common for programmer interview questions to be based on data structures.
The course was developed by Harsha and Animesh from MyCodeSchool. MyCodeSchool is one of the oldest software channels on YouTube. Animesh currently works as an engineer on Google's search team. Harsha was the highest ranked Indian programmer on the Top Coder competitive programming platform.
In C, a Stack is a linear data structure that follows the LIFO (Last In First Out) approach to perform a series of basic operations like push, pop, peek, and traverse. A Stack can be implemented using an Array or Linked List.
We will be using an array to implement a Static Stack (Bounded Stack) as arrays are static in C.A Static Stack has a bounded capacity. A static stack is called to be in an Overflow State if it is full (no elements can be further pushed into it).
In the above example, we are implementing a static stack with a capacity of 1000 in C using an array. The static stack performs the following operations: Push, Pop, Peek, isEmpty, and isFull. The program stops when the user chooses 0 as an option.
We will be using a linked list to implement a Dynamic Stack as linked lists are dynamic data stuctures.A Dynamic Stack does not have a bounded capacity, we can push as much as elements as we want into it.
In the above example, we are implementing a dynamic stack in C using a linked list. The dynamic stack performs the following operations: Push, Pop, Peek, and isEmpty. The program stops when the user chooses 000 as an option.
Previously, we saw a basic machine model in which the program placeseach object at a different location in memory. We now examine a morestructured model, stack-based memory management, that is used by manylanguage implementations.
C++ allows references to const to bind to values (i.e.rvalues in programming-language terms) rather than objects(lvalues). So a reference of type const int & can bindto just the value 3, as in const int &ref = 3;.
Computer programs are similarly built using layers of abstraction.When it comes to computational procedures, functions are ourmechanism for defining procedural abstractions. The user of afunction need only know what the function does without caring abouthow the function accomplishes its task. Specifically, the user needsto know the interface of the function, including its actual codeinterface and the documentation of what the function does. The userdoes not need to concern themselves with the implementation of thefunction, the actual details of how the function works.
In general, we organize a program by decomposing it into independentmodules, defined in separate files. In C++, a single module isfurther decomposed into a header file and a source file. In thiscourse, we will use the .h extension for header files and the.cpp extension for source files 2. The header contains theinterface of the module, while the source file contains the actualimplementation.
A C++ programmer should know the basics of the standard library, and use it where appropriate.Any programmer should know the basics of the foundation libraries of the project being worked on, and use them appropriately.Any programmer using these guidelines should know the guidelines support library, and use it appropriately.
Even a slow growth in resources will, over time, exhaust the availability of those resources.This is particularly important for long-running programs, but is an essential piece of responsible programming behavior.
Sometimes we control the details of a set of operations by an environment variable, e.g., normal vs. verbose output or debug vs. optimized.The use of a non-local control is potentially confusing, but controls only implementation details of otherwise fixed semantics.
A concrete type is fundamentally simpler than a type in a class hierarchy:easier to design, easier to implement, easier to use, easier to reason about, smaller, and faster.You need a reason (use cases) for using a hierarchy.
The function called will be that of the object constructed so far, rather than a possibly overriding function in a derived class.This can be most confusing.Worse, a direct or indirect call to an unimplemented pure virtual function from a constructor or destructor results in undefined behavior.
A swap can be handy for implementing a number of idioms, from smoothly moving objects around to implementing assignment easily to providing a guaranteed commit function that enables strongly error-safe calling code. Consider using swap to implement copy assignment in terms of copy construction. See also destructors, deallocation, and swap must never fail.
Here most overriding classes cannot implement most of the functions required in the interface well.Thus the base class becomes an implementation burden.Furthermore, the user of Container cannot rely on the member functions actually performing meaningful operations reasonably efficiently;it might throw an exception instead.Thus users have to resort to run-time checking and/ornot using this (over)general interface in favor of a particular interface found by a run-time type inquiry (e.g., a dynamic_cast).
There are a few cases where leaks can be acceptable or even optimal:If you are writing a program that simply produces an output based on an input and the amount of memory needed is proportional to the size of the input, the optimal strategy (for performance and ease of programming) is sometimes simply never to delete anything.If you have enough memory to handle your largest input, leak away, but be sure to give a good error message if you are wrong.Here, we ignore such cases.
owner has no default semantics beyond T*. It can be used without changing any code using it and without affecting ABIs.It is simply an indicator to programmers and analysis tools.For example, if an owner is a member of a class, that class better have a destructor that deletes it.
Code using a library can be much easier to write than code working directly with language features, much shorter, tend to be of a higher level of abstraction, and the library code is presumably already tested.The ISO C++ Standard Library is among the most widely known and best tested libraries.It is available as part of all C++ implementations.
Large parts of the standard library rely on dynamic allocation (free store). These parts, notably the containers but not the algorithms, are unsuitable for some hard-real-time and embedded applications. In such cases, consider providing/using similar facilities, e.g., a standard-library-style container implemented using a pool allocator.
Complex initialization has been popular with clever programmers for decades.It has also been a major source of errors and complexity.Many such errors are introduced during maintenance years after the initial implementation.
Casts are necessary in a systems programming language. For example, how elsewould we get the address of a device register into a pointer? However, castsare seriously overused as well as a major source of errors.
Threads are the machine-level foundation for concurrent and parallel programming.Threads allow running multiple sections of a program independently, while sharingthe same memory. Concurrent programming is tricky,because protecting shared data between threads is easier said than done.Making existing single-threaded code execute concurrently can beas trivial as adding std::async or std::thread strategically, or it cannecessitate a full rewrite, depending on whether the original code was writtenin a thread-friendly way.
Vectorization is a technique for executing a number of tasks concurrently without introducing explicit synchronization.An operation is simply applied to elements of a data structure (a vector, an array, etc.) in parallel.Vectorization has the interesting property of often requiring no non-local changes to a program.However, vectorization works best with simple data structures and with algorithms specifically crafted to enable it.
The low-level hardware interfaces used by lock-free programming are among the hardest to implement well and amongthe areas where the most subtle portability problems occur.If you are doing lock-free programming for performance, you need to check for regressions.
A lot of fear of exceptions is misguided.When used for exceptional circumstances in code that is not littered with pointers and complicated control structures,exception handling is almost always affordable (in time and space) and almost always leads to better code.This, of course, assumes a good implementation of the exception handling mechanisms, which is not available on all systems.There are also cases where the problems above do not apply, but exceptions cannot be used for other reasons.Some hard-real-time systems are an example: An operation has to be completed within a fixed time with an error or a correct answer.In the absence of appropriate time estimation tools, this is hard to guarantee for exceptions.Such systems (e.g. flight control software) typically also ban the use of dynamic (heap) memory.